## Machine Learning – Linear Regression

**Linear Regression** is a machine learning algorithm based on **supervised learning**. It performs a **regression task**. Regression models a target prediction value based on independent variables. It is mostly used for finding out the relationship between variables and forecasting. Different regression models differ based on – the kind of relationship between dependent and independent variables, they are considering and the number of independent variables being used.

Linear regression performs the task to predict a dependent variable value (y) based on a given independent variable (x). So, this regression technique finds out a linear relationship between x (input) and y(output). Hence, the name is Linear Regression.

In the figure above, X (input) is the work experience and Y (output) is the salary of a person. The regression line is the best fit line for our model.

**Hypothesis function for Linear Regression :**

While training the model we are given :

**x:** input training data (univariate – one input variable(parameter))

**y:** labels to data (supervised learning)

When training the model – it fits the best line to predict the value of y for a given value of x. The model gets the best regression fit line by finding the best θ_{1} and θ_{2} values.

**θ _{1}:** intercept

**θ**coefficient of x

_{2}:Once we find the best θ_{1} and θ_{2} values, we get the best fit line. So when we are finally using our model for prediction, it will predict the value of y for the input value of x.

**How to update θ _{1} and θ_{2} values to get the best fit line ?**

**Cost Function (J):**

By achieving the best-fit regression line, the model aims to predict y value such that the error difference between predicted value and true value is minimum. So, it is very important to update the θ_{1} and θ_{2} values, to reach the best value that minimize the error between predicted y value (pred) and true y value (y).

Cost function(J) of Linear Regression is the **Root Mean Squared Error (RMSE)** between predicted y value (pred) and true y value (y).

**Gradient Descent:**

To update θ_{1} and θ_{2} values in order to reduce Cost function (minimizing RMSE value) and achieving the best fit line the model uses Gradient Descent. The idea is to start with random θ_{1} and θ_{2} values and then iteratively updating the values, reaching minimum cost.

Last Updated on October 24, 2021 by admin